2020 Poster and Oral Presentation Abstracts – Research and Scholarship

201 – Comparing Active Learning to Team-Based Learning in Undergraduate STEM
Thomas Newpher and Minna Ng
Duke University

Background: Team-based learning (TBL) is a special form of collaborative learning that involves the use of permanent working teams throughout the semester. In this highly structured and interactive teaching method, students perform preparatory activities outside of class to gain factual knowledge and understand basic concepts. In class, students collaborate with peers to apply content, analyze findings, and synthesize new ideas.
Aim: To better understand the learning outcomes specific to TBL courses, we analyzed end-of-semester course evaluations from a STEM course taught using either a moderate structure active learning (AL) or TBL format.

Methods: End-of-semester student course evaluations were obtained from a single undergraduate neuroscience course taught by the same instructor. A total of 11 measures of classroom dynamics and learning outcomes were obtained and compared between semesters taught using either AL or TBL.

Results: Our analysis reveals that the TBL taught classes had significantly higher levels of self-reported learning in the areas of gaining, understanding, and synthesizing knowledge.

Conclusions: We propose that these gains are driven by the TBL readiness assurance process and peer evaluations. Both of these structural components are expected to increase student accountability, motivation, and engagement with course content.

202 – Faculty Job Satisfaction in Pharmacy Schools that Utilize Team-Based Learning
Leanne Coyne, Peter Clapp, David Romerill, Leslie Ochs, Jody Takemoto
California Health Sciences University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Regis University School of Pharmacy, Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Tyler, University of New England College of Pharmacy

BACKGROUND: Team-Based Learning (TBL) has been implemented as the primary teaching modality in several US pharmacy schools, however no studies have evaluated the impact of these environments on instructors. This study aimed to evaluate instructor perceptions of their workload, work-life balance, distribution of responsibilities, professional development, collaboration, and overall enjoyment of their faculty role.

DESCRIPTION: Faculty at US colleges of pharmacy were eligible to participate in this survey-based study. Data was collected using a questionnaire developed by the investigators in Qualtrics.

RESULTS: 33 instructors responded to the survey, including 27 who primarily teach using TBL and 6 who use other methods. Participants who primarily use TBL responded similarly to participants who do not use TBL in questions relating to workload, work preferences and time spent preparing for class. Interestingly, instructors who do not use TBL attended more professional development workshops relating to teaching than those who primarily use TBL. Instructors who do not use TBL reported more frequent work-related collaborations but socialized with colleagues less frequently than instructors who primarily use TBL. Although instructors who use TBL as their primary teaching modality reported that they feel more connected, work better with and enjoy collaborating with their faculty colleagues than non-TBL instructors, overall job satisfaction appeared to be higher for instructors who do not use TBL.

CONCLUSION: Although a primary limitation of this study was the low response rate from non-TBL instructors, this study did reveal that some faculty are not satisfied with using TBL as their primary instructional modality. This is important for administrators to consider when considering migrating to a program wide TBL model.

203 – The Alphabet Soup of LGBTQ; Navigating a Post Heteronormative and Cisgendered World
Maya Leiva
California Health Sciences University

Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Questioning/Queer or LGBTQ encompasses a widely divergent group of mostly vulnerable individuals, who often face discrimination and hostility in daily life.  In order to increase cultural competency and awareness, educators have an opportunity to incorporate more inclusive language and encourage our students to do the same.  There is already published evidence indicating that students who belong to ethnic minorities in group learning environments, experience discomfort and are frequently marginalized. Because Team Based Learning requires a higher degree of interpersonal maturity and cultural competency, it is imperative that facilitators create a more hospitable and comfortable climate for all vulnerable student populations.

I intend to discuss some of the nuances and complexities around the LGBTQ acronym, using inclusive language, and creating strategies to improve education cultures and experiences for students who identify as LGBTQ in the complex and dynamic interpersonal ecosystem that is Team Based Learning.

204 – The Influence of Area of Study on Student Perceptions of a Team Based Learning Approach to Undergraduate Courses in Criminal Justice
Brooke Nodeland, Jessica Craig, Roxanne Long
University of North Texas

This study will examine how undergraduate major area of study are associated with potential differences in student perceptions of team based learning (TBL) in two criminal justice courses. This approach continues to experience growth in university classrooms in application and empirical examinations, however, there has been little to no attention given to differences in student receptiveness and engagement across majors. This study uses pre-/post- data collected from self-administered surveys in several undergraduate courses during 2019 to examine these differences. Both courses included in the study are required courses in the criminal justice major while the largest course, introduction to criminal justice, is a university wide elective of which the majority of students are non-criminal justice majors. Specifically, this study contributes to the empirical examination of TBL by allowing us to examine if student perceptions vary based upon if the course is in their major field of study or not.

205 – First Time Trial of Team-Based Learning of Midwifery Students in Indonesia; Focus on Clinical Reasoning
Yunefit Ulfa, Kaori Takahata, Yukari Igarashi, Shigeko Horiuchi
St. Luke’s International University

Background: In Indonesia, maternity care dominantly provided by midwives in primary clinic settings as a background. Besides medical facilities and financial systems, poor clinical reasoning and decision-making done by midwives may become a major contribution to adverse events and poor outcomes in maternity care. The didactic teaching method implemented at most Indonesian midwifery schools may underlie the lack of student ability in clinical reasoning, even though the best learning-teaching method to develop clinical reasoning has not been elucidated. We propose team-based learning as a pedagogical method to enhance the student ability of the clinical reasoning in Indonesian midwifery schools since it not only handles a large enrollment class but also applies a course concept of real complex scenarios. Studies on the application of team-based learning in Indonesian midwifery students have not been done in the past. Here we aimed to examine the first trial of Team-Based Learning for Midwifery Students in Indonesia which Focuses on Clinical Reasoning.

Method: This quasi-experimental study enrolled 64 second-year midwifery students as participants. It designed as a pre-test and post-test without a control group. These groups attended 2 team-based learning class sessions (90 minutes weekly for 2 weeks) on post-partum hemorrhage topics. The clinical reasoning assessed by Clinical Reasoning Evaluation Simulation Tools (CREST). Data were collected from January to February 2019 and analysed by T-test.

Results: The team-based learning group performed significantly better in case interpretation (t=-9.8, p=0.000), sign and symptoms (t=-4.7, p=0.000), diagnosis (t=14.2, p=0.000), and treatment (t=-9.2, p=0.000) at the post-test. Overall, there is a significant increase of clinical reasoning between pre-test and post-test (t=-13.8, p=0.000).

Conclusion: Team-based learning promotes students to enhance clinical reasoning. The protocol of the first trial of team-based learning was feasible.

The RAPsody of Virtual Reality Team-Based Learning
Jody K. Takemoto1,2, Rachel A. Sharpton3, Brittany L. Parmentier3, Thayer A. Merritt4,5, Leanne Coyne1,2
1Department of Biomedical Education, College of Osteopathic Medicine, California Health Sciences University, 65 N. Clovis Ave, Clovis, CA 93612, USA
Oral Abstract 

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and implement the readiness assurance process (RAP) in a virtual reality (VR) environment and to evaluate the effectiveness of the RAP in a VR team-based learning™ (TBL) scenario.

Methods: Participants were recruited through postings on the University campus and through student organization listservs. Students were provided with a short reading and escorted to individual VR stations to complete the RAP (e.g. iRAT, tRAT, appeals, and clarifying points). A survey collected participant demographic information and specific questions about their VR TBL experience using a 5-point Likert scale and open-ended questions.

Results: Participants from diverse backgrounds and educational experiences participated in a RAP TBL experience. Participants tended to be White (30%), Female (51%), and/or between the ages of 18-24 years (89%). The majority of participants responded positively to the experience indicating that they would take a VR TBL course (83.33%) and would actually choose this environment over current online methods for team activities (88.89%). A small percentage experienced vertigo (29.63%) while participating.

Conclusion:  This pilot study is the first successful demonstration of TBL conducted in VR. Opportunities for improvement includes minimizing vertigo while in the learning environment and improving use of this technology for team activities and assessments. Additional studies are warranted to implement a complete TBL module in VR from RAP through application exercises.

Acknoledgements: The authors would like to thank the Team-Based Learning Learning™ for their financial support.

Faculty Approaches and Attitudes towards TBL Pre-Class Learning Materials
Allen Keshishian Namagerdi, California Health Sciences University, College of Pharmacy
Oral Abstract 

Background: Literature review suggests various preparatory materials include instructor-prepared handouts, literature articles, textbook sections, PowerPoint slide set with audio, prerecorded lecture, and video for students pre-class preparation in a TBL setting. Although there are multiple kinds of pre-class preparatory materials, and there is great variance in how well students learn content out of the class, which is crucial to designing and preparing pre-class materials, there are no empirical and controlled research studies on the best strategies to provide the necessary pre-class content instruction.

Aim: Review and analyze the faculty approaches and attitudes towards pre-class learning materials for disciplines taught in a TBL setting.

Methods: Survey questions using Likert scale followed by open-ended questions were designed for this quantitative and descriptive study. Study population included faculty and instructors who had been teaching in TBL settings in disciplines including but not limited to pharmaceutical, clinical and socioeconomical sciences as well as business, law, mathematics and English. All data was derived from online survey results.

Results: Anonymous survey containing 17 questions was sent to 210 faculty and instructors of k-12/high school or equivalent, undergrad and post grad institutions with TBL. Based on the survey results, ‘Guided handout’ was ranked by faculty as the most effective pre-class material for facilitating students learning. About 80% of faculty said that they had almost always (more than 75% of times) assigned guided handout as a pre-class material to their students. Also, results of survey showed that ‘Level of student engagement’ and ‘Development of critical thinking’ were ranked by faculty as two most important factors in preparation of pre-class materials.

Conclusion: Results of this study can be implemented in designing pre-class learning materials at TBL institutions to improve students pre-class readiness more effectively.

Pre-professional student perceptions of TBL applied in an MCAT Preparatory Course
Kevin Steed | Samuel Kadavakollu, California Health Sciences University – College of Osteopathic Medicine | California Health Sciences University – College of Osteopathic Medicine
Oral Abstract 

Introduction: California Health Sciences University, College of Osteopathic Medicine’s founding faculty established an MCAT Preparatory Course which ran Saturdays and Sundays for 8 weeks during the summer of 2019. Select faculty from CHSU implemented Team-Based Learning (TBL) into the MCAT study sessions. In this study, we sought to identify to what extent students perceived that working in a team impacted their learning and their ability to perform well on the MCAT, compared to time spent in lecture modules.

Methods: During the 8-week MCAT Preparatory Course 74 students were exposed to a variety of teaching styles from a handful of educators, presented in lecture-based learning and TBL formats in one- or two-hour sessions. All instructors were given the same AAMC published MCAT section outlines on which to build their lessons. Beyond that, professors were given flexibility to prepare according to their expertise and experience. TBL sessions followed the typical progression, including dissemination of pre-work the week before, IRAT, TRAT, and application exercises that took the form of passage centered questions and other content related multiple choice questions.  Over the 8 weeks students were in sessions for 112 hours, 88 of which were devoted to instruction, and TBL accounted for 25 of those instructional hours. At the conclusion of the course 62 students responded to a short 14 item survey asking their perspective of TBL’s impact on their course outcomes. Students were also given a short demographics survey.

Results: The students responded positively to the effects of TBL on the MCAT course with a mean of 4.23 out of 5. Question means ranged from 4.06 to a high of 4.45. Individual student means ranged from 2.21 to 5.00. Conclusions: The pre-medical students, overall, felt that the TBL sessions positively impacted their learning and development during the MCAT course.

Using Small Group Instructional Feedback to Measure Student Impressions of Integrated Online Team-Based Learning
David S. Williams | Christopher Parrish | Julie M. Estis, University of South Alabama | University of South Alabama | University of South Alabama
Oral Abstract

Introduction: The Integrated Online Team-Based Learning (IO-TBL) model of course design utilizes asynchronous and synchronous modes of engagement to foster collaborative learning online. As the demand for online education grows, educators need to provide students with interactive and impactful learning experiences.  IO-TBL brings the benefits of face-to-face TBL to online settings to maximize real-time engagement with the flexibility afforded to typical online courses.

Methods: IO-TBL was implemented in an online, upper-level teacher education course. The courses included 28 students across three sections and two semesters. Student responses to IO-TBL were collected through structured Small Group Instructional Feedback (SGIF) sessions conducted at mid- and end-of-semester. SGIFs are focus group evaluations to gather information around students’ learning experiences. Students were specifically asked (1) what in the course is going well and (2) what specific suggestions do you have for improvement. SGIF results were examined using qualitative concept mapping (Balan, Balan-Vnuk, Metcalfe, & Lindsay, 2016) to analyze similarities in responses and produce concept maps of related clusters.

Results: Data analysis of what students identified as going well in the course revealed seven clusters of similarities: observations, RATs, course setup (TBL), synchronous online, learning, teamwork, and instructor. Student responses when asked to provide suggestions yield nine clusters of similarities: online tools, RATs, observations, logistics of observations, peer evaluation, workload, team composition, time commitment, and more lecture.

Conclusion: Student SGIF responses indicated that the IO-TBL model fostered significant and meaningful interactions among students and enhanced social presence in the course. Overall, synchronous meetings were viewed by students as part of a more effective online course design when compared to their experiences in other typical online courses. Student suggestions were used to refine the IO-TBL model and improve the overall quality of the course in subsequent semesters.

Development of the Team-Based Learning Student Outcomes Measure (TBL-SOM)
Chris Eidson, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Oral Abstract

BACKGROUND: Existing instruments that assess students’ perceptions of TBL are not based on the Conceptual Model of TBL; the aim of this project is to develop and validate an instrument on the perception of learning outcomes among college students who have participated in TBL. It will be based on the suggested learning outcomes of the Conceptual Model for TBL proposed by Haidet and colleagues.

DESCRIPTION: This project is funded by the TBLC, and the University of Alabama at Birmingham.  It is a mixed-methods design, beginning with a qualitative methodology that includes preliminary literature review, focus groups, expert review, and cognitive interviews.

An initial set of content domains and items for the TBL-SOM were generated from literature review, and from the collective TBL experience of the research team.  The initial set of domains and item pool on perceptions of learning outcomes for TBL are being refined through focus group discussions. That data will be examined via thematic analysis, with validation performed by a disinterested peer, as well as peer debriefing and member checking.  This will be followed by expert review using Delphi technique, assessing item relevance and representativeness.  Cognitive interviewing will be conducted on the agreed upon items, with subsequent revisions as necessary.

RESULTS: The project is ongoing at present. It is anticipated that the qualitative data, or phase one of the study, will be completed by the presentation date.  If accepted for presentation, that data will be presented, along and a more in-depth overview of the methodology.

CONCLUSIONS: A quantitative instrument validation stage will follow completion of the development stage, to include field testing with associated item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, to identify the underlying domains.  It is our intention to submit for a workshop at the 2021 TBLC Annual Meeting to present on the completed instrument.

The Effects of Team-Based Learning (TBL) on Leadership Development: Initial Perspectives from Pharmacy Preceptors and Student Pharmacists
Marta Brooks, PharmD, MS | Robert Haight, PhD, MPA, Regis University
Oral Abstract

Objectives: As the role of the pharmacist evolves, the need of pharmacists to be efficient leaders increases. The Regis University School of Pharmacy employs TBL as its primary means of educating students. Students work in teams throughout their first three years of pharmacy school, which allow students to gain skills related to interpersonal relations, group dynamics, and communication. The objective is to explore whether TBL influences leadership development in a Doctor of Pharmacy program.

Methods: This study examines the perceptions that student pharmacists and preceptors have with TBL and improved leadership skills. Qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory to analyze preceptor interviews and will be similarly analyzed for student focus groups. Utilizing an a priori codebook, the researchers coded themes in the transcripts. The researchers will then compare themes from student and preceptor responses to determine similarities.

Results: To date, nine preceptors (majority 26-35 years of age) were interviewed. All participants precepted students for more than six years and at least P4 students. All interviewees stated that leadership skills are an important aspect of being a pharmacist and were not taught while they were in school. Interviewees stated that communication is a dimension of being a leader and a pharmacist. Interviewees also noted a link between TBL and being a leader, with statements such as “Communication is fostered by TBL” and “ability to fit with any multidisciplinary team is evident.” The interviewees also stated that TBL gave students skills necessary to be successful in their careers as healthcare team-members.

Implications: Leadership and the ability to communicate and work in a team are important aspects of being a pharmacist. Preceptor interviews reveal that Student Pharmacists who learn through TBL gain general leadership and communication skills that set them apart from their counterparts. The next phase will be to explore student perceptions of leadership development.