2020 Abstracts – Fundamentals

101 – Introduction of Team Based Learning in Anatomy Course and Student’s Perception of its Usefulness
Iuliia Zhuravlova
Trinity School of Medicine

Background: Traditional didactic lectures are an essential portion of most curricula, but this type of activity does not provide engagement of students into the active learning process. We have attempted to implement team based learning (TBL) in our school to develop interpersonal and group interaction skills in our students, and also to prepare them for the lifelong learning and to help them to master the key course concepts.

Methods: The TBL session plans were posted at the students’ portal prior to the beginning of the semester. In the beginning of the semester the students were separated into the groups and were informed about the dates of upcoming session, the amount of the material that should be prepared/learned by a student prior to each session. The pre-reading assignment was given to the students.

A total of 50 students of term 2 were separated into teams of 5-6. After each TBL session the students were completing a survey with 10 questions, where they had to rate the session on the basis of the 5 point Likert-type scale. The responses were anonymous.

Results: after the analysis of the surveys completed by students, it was identified that majority of the students (89%) were satisfied with the TBL session, responding 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree). 78% agreed that TBL sessions promoted long term retention of the material. 82% agreed that they have deeper knowledge of the topics covered in TBL sessions.

Conclusion: It was identified that students perceive TBL sessions as a useful method and a successful substitution of a didactic lecture. Due to the success of the conducted TBL sessions we plan to increase their amount in Anatomy course as well as in the other courses.

102 – Using TBL in Calculation-Intensive Courses
Jennifer Mott and Steffen Peuker
Cal Poly San Luis Obispo

In calculation intensive disciplines, such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics, learning objectives include the ability to solve complex problems oftentimes using longer calculations to solve a problem. It can be difficult to follow the 4S format for applications in Team-Based Learning when students are required to solve complex problems. Many calculation heavy problems are difficult to be completed during class time. There is the pressure to be able to solve the problems alone in preparation for exams and students are typically used to only working in teams for laboratory assignments or design projects. Faculty teaching these calculation intensive courses often dismiss even considering implementing TBL because of the aforementioned reasons. How do we create meaningful application assignments that students can complete during class time and still be able to follow the 4S format, specifically, the Significant Problem, Specific Choice and Simultaneous Report aspects?

Some solutions to implement applications in calculation intensive classes based on our experience are:

Significant (but doable) Problem: Break up the problems into smaller problems, assign calculation parts to finish in class, at home as homework or continuing during the next class session.

Specific Choice: The traditional approach is to have students choose the correct answer, but the focus in terms of learning is on the solution process not the numerical answer. Solutions include having students select governing equations they would use to solve the problem, select or create correct schematics to help them solve the problem, report intermediate solutions and solving for the final answer as a homework assignment.

103 – A Modified ‘Michaelsen-Koles’ Peer Evaluation Method in Team-Based Learning
Jody K. Takemoto and Leanne Coyne
California Health Sciences University

In addition to be competent health care professionals, pharmacist work collaboratively on health care teams, manage pharmacy personnel, balance formulary inventory and budgets, and provide patient education in a variety of settings. Because of the diversity in professional responsibilities, it is imperative that student pharmacist acquire and practice approaches to providing competent care and develop a life-long learning mindset to continue to grow personally and professionally. These attributes are so critical to the profession that the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) has included them as elements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Standards. In this study we focused on developing student pharmacists’ ability to give and receive feedback. One forum to be able to develop the knowledge, skills, and mindset of giving and receiving feedback are through peer evaluations. Peer evaluations are a component of Team-Based Learning™ (TBL) that is critical to individuals being able to work in groups and eventually form teams. We describe for the first-time implementation of a modified Michaelsen-Koles Peer Evaluation Method with an additional self-evaluation component in an 8-week pharmacy course. Preliminary data suggests that, students developed skills to provide quality feedback and make self-improvements. Generally, students were hard on themselves when commenting on their own opportunities for improvement but were in alignment with their team members on their strengths. Opportunities for refinement of the developed peer evaluation tool are apparent, this provided additional opportunities for student personal and professional development as well as artifacts to present for accreditation.

104 – The Little Things Matter – Making Three Small Changes To My TBL Teaching
Neo Chip Chuan
Singapore Polytechnic

Background: I have been using Team Based Learning (TBL) since 2016 to teach financial audit to my 2nd year accountancy students.  In my most recent semester, I made three small changes to my TBL teaching with the aim of solving three challenges:

  • How to allow students to revisit lecture content before the readiness assurance test (RAT)?
  • How to identify weaker students within each class?
  • How to intervene and help free-riders in the team?

Description:

The three changes I had made and the purpose for doing each were:

  • Recorded all my face-to-face lectures live so as to allow my students to revisit lecture content anytime anywhere
  • Developed a simple and easy to use dashboard for each RAT so as to identify weaker students and tailor my teaching accordingly
  • Conducted peer evaluation at the mid-point of the semester so as to identify, intervene and help the free-riders to level up

Results:

Results for the three changes were:

  • Notwithstanding the availability of the recorded lectures, vast majority of the students still attend my face-2-face lectures.  And they now have another option to revisit my lectures anytime anywhere in order to prepare for the RAT.
  • From the students’ RAT results, I was able to identify the weaker students for each topic.  This helped me to be more targeted in my teaching for each topics.
  • Out of 200 students, there were 6 students with self & peer assessment (SPA) score of below 0.80.  I was able to intervene early, counsel and motivate 5 of the 6 students such that their final SPA at the end of the semester improved.

Conclusion: As a result of the three small changes made, my teaching using TBL has become more effective for students’ learning and development.

105 – Assessing the impact of team-based learning on maternal and newborn nursing in accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing program
Miyuki Oka
St. Luke’s International University, Japan

Background: Team-based learning (TBL) is an effective way of introducing active learning to students. Although TBL yields various favorable learning outcomes, only few studies have supported the effectiveness of team activities in improving the knowledge about maternal and newborn nursing of students in the 2-year accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (ABSN) program. TBL is implemented in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing and ABSN programs for 6 and 3 months, respectively. Therefore, studies on whether TBL learning outcomes are associated with the length of learning periods are limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of gaining knowledge and building a team using TBL on ABSN students.

Methods: For 3 months, ABSN students were taught the basic knowledge of maternal and newborn nursing using the TBL method. The students’ final exam scores and team dynamics between two classes of different grades of the ABSN students were assessed. The students took the final exam at the end of the course and evaluated the extent of team dynamics built by their respective teams twice during the course using the visual analog scale (range, 1–10). The study used written questionnaires.

Results: In this study, 59 ABSN students participated who were divided into six groups comprising 4-5 students of each grade. The mean scores of the final exam (range, 0–80) of the two classes of different grades were 64.6 (SD=7.2) and 69.4 (SD=4.6), which reached >80% of the total score. The team building score was higher in the second time than that in the first time; the amount of changes in team dynamics between two questionnaires in both classes were 0.48 (SD=0.69) and 0.68 (SD=1.25).

Conclusion: The 3-month TBL for maternal and newborn nursing was effective in achieving knowledge and building ABSN students team.

106 – TBL: Where do I begin? A Reflection on the first year of using TBL
Sarah Shirley
Brenau University

Discussion of problem:  Starting with TBL can be overwhelming particularly at a University or department that is not currently using it at all.  Many professors do not have the time or resources to complete the work required to “flip” a traditional class to teach TBL style.  This poster or focus group will present common obstacles that occur within the first year of teaching TBL style within a program that does not have faculty members already using it. Most early adopters have to build the plane while flying it.

Proposed approaches and solutions: The following is a list of obstacles, experiences, and lessons learned in the first year of teaching with Team-Based Learning.

Flight school: Getting to know TBL through resources including TBLC, workshops, and books.
Boarding: Introducing and getting buy-in from students new to TBL
Charting a course: Proposing new point break downs.  Compromising with faculty who want to teach other ways.
In-flight maintenance: Planning how to implement elements of TBL: using current content, time for planning,  use of space and technology.
Crash course correction- Handling student concerns over increased active learning demands and peer review.
Preparation for landing- How to make use of course evaluations and use experiences to share with other faculty.

Recommendations – New adopters of TBL have first-hand experience and insight into the obstacles and opportunities encountered in the use of TBL.  A thoughtful reflection on a first-year experience would supply the most relevant data for improvements in fundamentals and innovations for providing mentorship within the TBL community.

Limitations-Individual case study

107 – A longitudinal faculty development program: supporting a culture of teaching in TBL
Annette Burgess, Elie Matar, Brendon Neuen, Greg Fox
University of Sydney School of Medicine

Introduction/background: Recent trends in faculty development demonstrate a shift from short term to long-term programs; formal to informal learning in the workplace; individual to group settings; and from individual support to institutional support. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a one-year Clinical Teaching Fellowship (CTF) program designed to equip early career medical practitioners and basic scientists with necessary skills to facilitate Team-based learning (TBL).

Methods: The CTF program provided formal training, a choice of informal professional development activities, and practical co-teaching opportunities in TBL. Of the 40 registrants, 31 (78%) completed the program. Data were collected via questionnaire and focus group. Quantative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Framework analysis,using the conceptual framework of Experienced Based Learning, was used to analyse qualitative data.

Results: Participants felt learning was enriched through the combination of training, practical teaching experience alongside senior clinical teachers, the multi-disciplinary context of training and co-teaching in TBLs; and the sense of community. Participants considered the CTF program as relevant to their needs and useful to their career. Competing clinical responsibilities made it difficult to for some participants to attend all training and TBL teaching.  Most expressed a desire to continue teaching TBLs in future years, and an interest in remaining connected with the CTF program.

Conclusions: The CTF program provided a longitudinal faculty development framework promoting preparation, practice and development of TBL teaching skills within a supportive environment. In 2019, participant numbers have tripled. Securing institutional support to invest in the growth and development of early career teachers is essential to sustained innovation and excellence in teaching.

108 – Interprofessional Team-based learning in medicine and health: a pilot study
Annette Burgess, Eszter Kalman, Inam Haq, Andrew Leaver, Chris Roberts, Jane Bleasel
Education Office University of Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney Health Professional Education Network, Faculty of Health Sciences University of Sydney

BACKGROUND: Although challenging to integrate within university curricula, evidence suggests interprofessional education (IPE) positively impacts communication and teamwork skills in the workplace. The nature of Team-based learning (TBL) lends itself to IPE, with the capacity to foster a culture of collegiality among health professional students.  This study reported on a 2019 single pilot interprofessional TBL session on backpain, involving medical and physiotherapy students. Our aims were to explore factors impacting students’ collaborative work within the TBL process, in order to inform interventions to optimise TBL in the IPE context.

METHODS: In a mixed methods study, 311 students participated in the TBL: 222/277 (80%) Year 1 medical and 89/89 (100%) Year 2 physiotherapy students completed one interprofessional Musculoskeletal Sciences TBL session. A questionnaire, including closed and open-ended items was distributed to students at completion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Pre-class quiz scores were compared between the groups.

RESULTS: 117/311 (38%) of participants completed the questionnaire. Both medicine and physiotherapy students appreciated the opportunity to learn about the curriculum of another healthcare discipline, and their scope of practice; gain multiple perspectives on a patient case from different disciplines; and recognised the importance of multidisciplinary teams in patient care. Students felt having an interprofessional team of facilitators, providing immediate feedback helped to consolidate learning and promote clinical reasoning. There was no difference between medical and physiotherapy students’ pre-class quiz scores.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the small group and task-focused characteristics of TBL provided a student-centred teaching strategy, supporting the achievement of interprofessional learning goals. Students valued their interactions with other students from a different professional degree, opportunities to problem-solve together, and learn different perspectives on a patient case. The individual quiz results demonstrate both groups of students had a comparative level of prior knowledge to be able to work together on class activities.

109 – Nurse’s competencies development by using TBL in a Graduate Studies Course
Viviane Bianca Bella, Maria Mercedes Samperiz Fernandes, Mariana Lucas da Rocha Cunha
Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein

BACKGROUND: Developing core competencies for nurses in specialization courses is challenging, mainly because students have different experiences in managing newborn critical situations. Team Based Learning can assist in the teaching process by stimulating the contribution of each group member to the individual’s learning.

AIM:  To assess whether the use of TBL facilitates the learning of postgraduate students in neonatal and pediatric nursing courses, and whether this method enhances core competencies in caring for newborns with jaundice.

METHODS: field research, experimental, with quantitative focus. The sample consisted of 31 post-graduation students, most were women, average age of 32,5 anos; 41.9% already working with neonatology. Data were obtained by applying two instruments after a TBL session about jaundice. One of them was Evaluation of Student Perception of the TBL Method (APA-TBL) and the other to assess the perception of competency development in the research question.

RESULTS:  In their perception through TBL session, items with concordance in the four dimensions of APA-TBL were highlighted reinforcing good results based on evidence from previous studies. The five items of the instrument two were distributed in agreement proportions higher than 83.9%. it is noteworthy that the items “I believe that after the TBL will be able to understand the physiology of jaundice in the newborn” and “The TBL helped me to assess the risks and signs of aggravation of neonatal jaundice ”, obtained 96.8% (30). In other words, the students perceived themselves as competent to explain the physiology of jaundice, to assess the risks and signs of worsening of the disease and to care for the newborn in this condition.

CONCLUSIONS: TBL is effective in nursing post-graduation and promotes critical thinking and classroom decision-making. Teamwork improved students performance and subject grasp. It can be incorporated in post-graduation to develop professional practice competencies.